TRU Lithium & Brine Industries Team
All Lithium Technologies & Engineering + Lithium Markets & Investment
Mining + Processing + Engineering + Markets + Applications + Batteries
Diverse Brines - Assessment + Extraction + Processing + Separation
TRU Group Inc claims to have the most qualified lithium & brine team - a strong capability in all aspects of lithium engineering, technology and industry - lithium brine, spodumene ore, clays, mining, geothermal, lithium extraction, lithium chemicals & Li metal manufacturing, engineering and refining. We have worked extensively in the use of lithium like li-ion cells, batteries, compounds, ceramics, metal and lithium alloys. We can manage all aspect of your lithium project from concept to production: TRU clients in lithium range from junior or high tech, to multi-billion-dollar conglomerates, for example, Advanced Metallurgical Group LSM, Materials & Electrochemical Research Corp, OM Group Inc, Mitsubishi Corporation, ExxonMobil, Resource Capital Funds USA, Sojitz Corp, Rio Tinto, POSCO, Lithium Americas, Rodinia Lithium and several other junior mining companies.
We are world leaders in resource evaluation, salt lake salar exploitation, brine & mineral ore (spodumene, pegmatites etc) lithium extraction, processing, purification refining and recycling technologies - those in use, prospective, and leading edge - solar evaporation, selective ion adsorption, electrodialysis, nanofiltration & advanced membrane, spodumene conversion, etc. Importantly our team includes strong potash, boron / borates and fertilizer capability usually lithium production coproducts. TRU Lithium & Brine Team is expert in all aspects of Lithium Engineering, production and refining of lithium resources such as evaporation ponds, brines, spodumene mining: lithium basic chemicals - lithium carbonate, lithium hydroxide, lithium chloride: lithium intermediates - organo-lithium, butyl-lithium, lithium metal, lithium alloys and compounds - lithium cobaltate (LiCoO2 - positive electrode-active material for a lithium secondary cell). We have simulated, mapped, described and analyzed process details of producer facilities. TRU has conducted numerous lithium Lithium Feasibility Studies and Lithium Investor Due Diligence Investigations.
TRU Lithium & Brine Team members, with experience at all the lithium majors - SQM, FMC, Chemetall and China facilities - have managed, evaluated, designed, engineered, pilot-tested, specified equipment, developed and built these existing lithium plant facilities. In addition in 2012 TRU undertook the most comprehensive operational and financial global analysis (all downstream facilities included) of the lithium big-3: SQM, FMC and Rockwood-Chemetall (acquired 2014 by Albemarle Corporation. TRU has been engaged concurrently in several salar brine, mineral based spodumene and oilfield / geothermal / bromine brine feasibility / amenability lithium chemicals conversion studies. Our team members know, have visited and have assessed most of the lithium facilities or salars in the Chile, China, Argentina, Nevada USA, Bolivia, Australia, Canada, Russia and Zimbabwe etc. Indeed, Ihor Kunasz (pictured left at Salar Uyuni) has worked in lithium & brine for over thirty years: In february 2014 Kunasz received the American 2013-14 SME Robert M Dreyer Award for his expertise and achievements in lithium & brine.
TRU Group Inc uses chemistry simulation modeling to evaluate resource potential. For example, TRU modeled brine-bittern-carbonate-process options to rank over 170 global lithium brine salt lakes / flats / salars (plus geothermal, oilfield brine sources) for their amenability to the use of emerging lithium extraction technology. We have also evaluated and ranked major global lithium mineral ore sources comparing mineral-based to brine-based resources. TRU have undertaken many technical, engineering, modeling, industry, economic, financial, cost, marketing, supply-demand, feasibility and due diligence assignments in lithium Li, Lithium oxide (lithia) Li2O, Lithium bromide LiBr, Lithium carbonate Li2CO3, Lithium hydroxide monohydrate LiOH.H2O, Lithium chloride LiCl, Lithium fluoride LiF, Lithium hypochlorite LiOCl, Butyllithium: C4H9Li. TRU Lithium & Brine Team includes lithium application specialists for example in batteries [plus battery design], fuel cells, electric vehicles, glass, lithium chemicals [such as lithium lubricants / greases and pharmaceuticals] and lithium alloys.
TRU Lithium & Brine Team member visits included the Qinghai CITIC Guoan and Qinghai Lithium, Taijinair China Qaidam basin salt lake facilities and other key lithium brine properties, for example -
- Albemarle Corporation Rockwood – (formerly Chemetall Foote), USA - Silver Peak, NV, USA*
- Albemarle - Chemetall-SCL: Sociedad Chilena del Litio La Negra, Chile - Salar de Atacama, Chile*
- FMC Corporation, USA – Minera del Altiplano, Argentina - Salar del Hombre Muerto, Argentina
- SQM - Soquimich - Sociedad Química y Minera de Chile S.A., Chile - Salar de Atacama, Chile
- Lithium Americas / Orocobre - Salars Cauchari / Olaroz, Argentina
- Rincon Lithium Ltd, The Sentient Group, Australia - Salar del Rincon, Argentina
- Bolivian Government, Bolivia - Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia
TRU has diverse BRINE TECHNOLOGY capability. Our brine projects and expertise encompass salars, salt-flats, salt-lakes, evaporated lakes, geothermal-brine, producer-brines (from oil & gas drilling / fracking), sea water, semi-processed waste brines, desalination plant waste brines, coal seam gas water, mining brines, any wastewater and groundwater aquifer brines or evaporated salt in various forms. Also see -
TRU has in depth state-of-the art engineering capability in extracting valuable brine-based chemicals such as lithium, magnesium, potassium, bromine, iodine, boron and others. Our TRU Lithium & Brine Team members have visited and have studied all of the major and most of the undeveloped brine resources - South America, China, (Tibet), and USA. Examples,Salar de Atacama, Maricunga, Cauchari, Incahuasi, Olaroz, Puna Region, Clayton Valley NV, Smackover Arkansas bromide brines, Sabkha Matti / Dead Sea Middle East and many others around the world.
TRU has the strongest capability to evaluate lithium asset investments and undertake due diligence at all levels of the lithium industry. Most lithium output is in multi-commodity operations and includes potash, fertilizers, boron, boric acid, bromine and other salt products - for which we have a solid capability. In addition, lithium is one of the designated TRU Frontier Industries and we have a strong TRU Rare Earth Elements Team and work in related segments like ammonium nitrate fertilizer. Single-play lithium companies are few and investment problematic. Salar salt flat exploration especially is unique - not conventional geology! Misleading lithium investor documents abound.
In addition, juniors mining companies typically have little (mostly no) experience in chemical plant project development yet tend to use strikingly similar methods (often only internal) that are not bankable. These approaches are inappropriate for resource owners seeking investment and unacceptable for those trying IPO's. Some of the recently built lithium facilities have technical production problems or are uncompetitive - which could have been predicted by experienced lithium engineers. Also feasibility studies can be flawed due to ignorance of the strategic issues at play. Virtually all Chinese brine-based lithium operations are failures. Even the most modern ore-based Chinese plant built by western engineers seriously underperformed. Production of lithium chemicals to the crucial strict specifications is very challenging! Lithium technology is tricky, high tech and specialized. See
TRU Lithium Supply-Demand 2020 forecast was a major detailed assessment for Mitsubishi Corporation employing our team of lithium supply side and demand side experts. The supply analysis was in detail, by producer & resource, for both brine and minerals [mainly spodumene]. The demand side analysis included TRU proprietary lithium consumption projections in batteries, lubricants, glass / glazing / ceramics, air conditioning, pharmaceuticals, polymers, metal alloy, and other applications based on our own in-depth assessments of these markets. The work included a forecast of the main basic lithium chemicals - lithium carbonate, lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide. Competitive process and individual producer (existing and aspiring) costs were modeled calculated and compared. The detailed application outlook included demand in electric vehicles [including a comprehensive examination of electric vehicle EV and HEV, PHEV, PEV battery technology innovation and the readiness of lithium cell technology for this application. Lithium batteries - which use cobalt, graphite and lithium - 2014 march currently in vogue due to the Tesla plan for an American giga battery plant. Lithium prices were projected and updated:
In a separate Lithium Metal Market Study assessment, TRU staff managed a review of markets for lithium metal including batteries, Al-Li alloys and organo lithium compounds. Lithium metal [high & low sodium Li] and li alloy competitors were positioned, prominent butyllithium producers identified, and recommendations on development and market entry strategies put forward.
TRU Lithium & Brine Team Engineering & Design is by American, Canadian or European certified licensed Professional Engineers and "Qualified Persons" Stock Market securities regulations (SEC USA NI 43-101 JORC) and PEO Canada
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